The political factors presented below were extracted from the book “Contributions to didactics”.
- Document: Curriculum for Preschool education – 1972
This document has its basis in the principles of the Escuela Nueva (New School), which explored the spontaneous interests of children, the contact with nature and the search for harmony between family, school and society.
The political, social and cultural dimension:
THE NEOLIBERAL AUTHORITARIAN STATE:
The educational policy adopted by this state was characterized by a strong regulation of the procedures and a raise in the number of private institutions.
“This type of state didn’t put any price on democracy…”, but considered it a political method that had to adapt to the social rules and traditions.
The general objectives proposed by this state focused on: the contact of children with nature, and the teaching of habits and attitudes of respect and solidarity. It was important that children reach a superior level of development, be independent, creative and able to enrich their vocabulary.
The organization of objectives, contents and activities:
The contents were determined by the type of achievement that the children had to reach:
These contents fitted the children’s necessities, interests and attitudes. There were specific objectives for each of these achievements.
The activities were closely connected to the idea of experimentation and external movement (the internal process was not taken into account), which evolved into “doing an activity for the sake of the activity itself” (activism).
Organization of school subjects:
The curriculum was not divided into specific subjects, but into areas of study:
- Esthetic sensitivity
Each area was further subdivided, depending on the students’ age.
The role of the student:
The student was the center of the educational act, his freedom and personality had to be respected, he was the author of his own learning and the creator of his own achievements.
Learning was a natural process of observation and experimentation, which could be done regularly outside the classroom.
From the point of view of literacy, it was considered that the child had to start achieving these skills before entering the first grade. Taking into account the potential of each child, the teacher guided and instructed the children according to a teaching plan that was intended to provide a comprehensive education.
The role of the teacher:
The teacher had to design a timetable that was flexible and helped him or her maintain a cordial relationship with the workmates and the community. It also had to create an adequate environment for reading and writing.
The concept of literacy:
The process of alphabetization involved training the children by doing exercises that developed their motor abilities (see the pictures attached to the paragraph regarding Traditional Methods).