FOUR TIPS TO HELP YOU WRITE AN ESSAY

  1. An essay is a mix of art and science (this means that it uses creative, literary and logical elements to handle ideas). This dual essence in an essay (some will use this to say it’s a hybrid genre) is the origin of its power and difficulty. Because it’s a centaur, half one thing and half another thing, the essay can deal with all areas of knowledge and all topics. However, no matter what topic is chosen, the essay needs some “finesse” in its writing, so that it’s highly literary.
  2. An essay is not a commentary (writing about an opinion), but is rather a meditation, and it’s almost always derived from other people’s meditations (these people don’t necessarily have to be mentioned explicitly, although they’re usually mentioned in the footnotes or in the references). This is why the essay depends more on judgment and arguments (they’re not free opinions). The essay has to support the ideas. Better yet, the quality of an essay is measured through the quality of its ideas, the way in which they’re communicated, faced and taken into consideration. If there are no strong arguments, if they haven’t been developed beforehand, the essay becomes merely an assumption.
  3. An essay reasons. It’s a complete discourse. Good essays are linked in a coherent manner. It’s not about putting one idea after the other, because the addition of ideas does not constitute a good essay: you have to weave them in an organized manner, and you have to organize the ideas in a hierarchy, weighing them (let’s remember that ‘essay’ comes from ‘exagium’ which means, precisely, “weighing”). If there’s no logic in the composition of an essay, it will be difficult to get acceptable results, just as in music. This is why it’s important to make a plan, a map, a sketch – it works as a guide to write the essay.
  4. Just like a discourse, the essay requires a good usage of connecting elements (you have to keep a reserve of them). The connecting elements are like the hinges, the links that are necessary for the essay to not seem to be lacking cohesion. There are relationship connectors, consequence connectors and causality connectors. There are also connectors to summarize or emphasize. And, next to the connectors, it’s essential to have a perfect command of punctuation. Thanks to the comma and the semicolon (one of the most difficult-to-use punctuation signs), and thanks to the period, this is how the essay breathes, has a rhythm, a life. The inadequate or proper use of punctuation signs is what determines if our essay is monotonous or light, interesting or boring, flexible or tedious.

EDUCATIONAL PLAN

There are three main factors involved in any educational plan: the information, the student and the teaching process, united in a context.

There are different principles involved in this situation, that have to be taken into account, if we aim to form skilled readers and writers, and therefore to reduce the rate of illiteracy.

  • DIVERSITY

– in regard to didactic plans containing reading or writing situations

– in reading and composing texts that are not necessarily typical for school (like course books or textbooks), but also related to the society (stories, novels, news, maps, riddles, poems, pamphlets, graffiti, encyclopedias, etc.).

– by proposing situations that take into account the functions of reading and writing

– by reading and writing for different audiences or recipients, such as authorities, friends, family etc.

– in regard to the activities children perform starting from texts: reading, writing, dictation, listening, transcribing, shuffling through a text, making a plan, etc.

– in the ways the group, as well as the content, is organized (by planning permanent activities, strings of activities, occasional activities and projects).

  • CONTINUITY:

– This encourages the development of successive reading and writing situations that can be graded, and that can be presented at different stages of the school life.

– For Molinari, this word implies continuity not only in the classroom, but also at institutional level.

  • WORKING WITH THE WRITTEN LANGUAGE AND THE WRITING SYSTEM

– “As he gets introduces to the laws of language, the child builds a writing system. There is much evidence proving that learning to read and write does not mean only being acquainted with the alphabetic system, but it is necessary to take into account all the dimensions that written language involves. Consequently, children must be asked to read and write whole texts, not only isolated words.

  • IDEAS OF ACTIVITIES THAT MAY POSE PROBLEMS

– This means staging situations in which the children don’t have all the necessary knowledge, so that they have to use their previous knowledge and coordinate it with the new situation, enriching them and thus building new meanings and points of view.

  • IDEAS OF REAL COMMUNICATION SITUATIONS

– Considering that the student is a social and cultural being, we need to imagine situations that are closely related to daily activities and occurrences. This means that we need to present situations in given contexts, with a real receiver and a relevant goal, in which the children can participate with projects or other activities that arouse their interest. This will make tasks meaningful, and will make the students achieve new knowledge.

The role of school

After analyzing a few works that approach this subject, we have reached the following conclusions:

  • Every educational institution is a part of society, which has certain expectations from it, established according to the institution’s functions and performance.
  • One of the fundamental tasks of these institutions is that of forming literate people. They don’t restrict their activity to teaching letters, but aim to form skilled readers and writers.
  • Nowadays, we can notice a high degree of dissatisfaction in the society. The latter puts pressure on school to take up functions that people consider it should fulfill. But the fulfillment or the failure to fulfill these functions depends on certain factors. Here are the most important of them:
  1. School shouldn’t follow a curriculum that makes significant differences between the knowledge that each group of the society receives, because that would cement the socio-cultural differences that already exist. This happens because:

– school focuses on teaching the higher social classes;

– uses a “parallel distribution system”; that is, its requirements and expectations from the students are proportional with their performance;

– because it molds a homogenous educational offer over a heterogeneous educational system (that operates at social, religious, economic level, etc.) For this reason, teaching is done in arbitrary and artificial situations taken out of context.

– or simply, because it focuses on unsatisfied basic necessities, which makes it shift its aim, giving more importance to the welfare or wellbeing function, which eventually leads to school failure.

  1. Absenteeism: In some cases, students skip classes due to the long distance between home and school, or the weather conditions of the area. This results in an interruption of the educational process, which can culminate in school dropout.
  2. Dropout and repetition: These are other factors that lead to educational failure. “When a child doesn’t manage to learn, school offers him a second chance: the opportunity to start all over again. Is this a solution? The failure experience will repeat itself in similar conditions, so is it necessary to ask the child to go through it again? How many times can a person make the same mistakes? Probably, as many times as possible, before finally aborting the whole process.”

These repeated school years make children abandon the system either temporarily or forever. But this situation often depends on more than the student’s own will – it is the school who abandons the “deserter”, because it doesn’t have any means to keep him.

Therefore, we should address the problem not as a consequence of individual people’s will, but as that of a selective educational system – a social selection machine.

  1. Identification with other persons: Many children try to take after the grown-ups. So, when the model they choose is an illiterate person, they want the same for themselves. This results in the children’s lack of interest for reading and writing, or at least for recognizing letters. An educational institution should act as a liaison between school and family, so that this can be prevented from happening.
  2. The lack of awareness and commitment: An illiterate person, who grows up in an environment and a home lacking written materials and resources, has to receive all the information and the knowledge from his family.
  3. The small number and poor distribution of rural schools: this makes it difficult for children to have access to basic education. This is closely connected to absenteeism, repeating school years and dropout (described in points 2 and 3).

These are only some of the causes that educational institutions should analyze in order to amend the situation.

ADVICE FOR ESSAYS

The following is helpful advice that we have compiled in the last couple of weeks from our literature savvy friends:

  1. There are two great types of essay: one, the Montaigne line (you can read, for example “To Philosophize is to Learn to Die”, “On Friendship”, “On Books”). And, the other is the Bacon line (read at least two: “On studies”, “Of Vicissitude of Things”). In the first line, the essay is more subjective and there are proper citations. In the second line, the essay is more objective and there are no explicit citations, or there are few. Both Montaigne and Bacon are masters when it comes to developing ideas. They both work on the obvious and deep, the everyday routine and the surprising. They both appeal to other voices, they both use the past and other books to present their points of view. They both pass judgment: they venture to present their thoughts. It’s important to reread these two authors, apart from being a joy and a reunion with good prose, they’re model-essays, and they can be useful to anyone who wants to learn or perfect their essay-writing.
  2. Other exquisite essays are the ones written by Alfonso Reyes and Pedro Henríquez Ureña. These are strong essays with depth, and above all, they were written using all of the literary resources and the power of imagination. Whoever has read Reyes’ “Notes on American Intelligence” or Ureña’s “Six Essays Looking for Our Expression” has felt this to be a revelation of powerful writing, the kind of writing that can create worlds. There’s a treasure trove of style in these two essayists, a really personal “stamp” that puts the essay on the same level as the story or the poem. When you read Reyes’ or Ureña’s essays, what you read, apart from being energetic thoughts, is excellent literature.
  3. The essay shouldn’t be so short that it seems like just a thought, or so long that it seems like a research paper. There’s a middle ground: from 3 to 10 pages (just to mention a length). But, whatever its length, each essay needs to have a thesis (with its pros and its cons), and the necessary summary. Let’s not forget that the essay is a complete piece of writing. The previous points are not selective in regards to other styles or to different ways of writing an essay, and they shouldn’t be read as set rules. They’re only recommendations, general guidelines.

The importance of alphabetization in primary school

“As for the access of children to the written language, does it start on the day and at the time adults decide?”

From the studies we conducted, we have come to the conclusion that no, it doesn’t. We can say that children are introduced to the written text before they even start school. Although they don’t do it in a conventional way, they start building significant meanings, hypotheses and predictions in their real-life situations.

“It is exactly this type of information that is not transmitted in the beginning of school training. This is the type of knowledge that children already possess, if they have been raised by literate adults.”

This knowledge is the basis on which school should start its training.

The next question is: what do we do? Should we ignore all this knowledge and start from zero in primary school? We introduce the children to reading and writing as a preparation for a later stage? Or we just teach them to read and write?

We are convinced that, from our position as teachers, we cannot ignore what children know (although we admit that the information is very diverse), and we must make this the starting point in our teaching. Neither do we claim that children should be able to read and write before leaving kindergarten. Our objective is to establish in primary school the idea of a teaching practice in which the early systematic participation of children in relevant reading and writing situations happens on a daily basis.

This way, they get accustomed to the use and requirements of the written language, although they still can’t read and write well.

“The particular function of primary school is that of having children approach the written culture early in life, with the aim of creating a space in which they will become literate in relation to the knowledge about the reading and writing processes and the social functions of the written language. It is much more important to understand how to read and write and what texts are spread in the society, than to complete the official process of alphabetization in the system.”

ALPHABETIZATION IN PRIMARY SCHOOL

Formerly, literacy was understood in a much more limited manner, mostly described as “the ability to read and write by decoding letters”.

Traditional methods considered that children did not have any knowledge, and that this was “imprinted” through the activity of the teacher, who tried to have the children learn the system of writing through exercises of mechanical dexterity. The figurative aspect of the system was also considered, so learning was seen as a process of acquirement realized at perceptive-motor level.

After extensive research (that we will describe below) the concept of literacy is now understood in a more ample way.

It has been claimed that learning the written language, apart from being a perceptive-motor process, also involves conceptual and linguistic aspects.

Based on these contributions, we can redefine literacy as a process through which the subject not only learns to read and write, but does it in a reflexive way.

Therefore, as he reaches the written culture (which includes both fields of reading and writing), the student is able to communicate automatically and interact with his environment; otherwise, he will find himself excluded from it.

Acquiring a level of literacy means respecting the basic right of non-discrimination, which is an innate right that all humans have, and that should be promoted and protected from all cultural perspectives.

Consequently, we can say that literacy is an universal right, a right for everyone, “…without making distinctions or discrimination based on race, color, gender, language, religion, nationality, social background, financial status, place of birth, political views or other criteria.”

Literacy is a prerequisite for human and social progress, which is acquired through the liberalization of knowledge.

LINGUISTIC CONTRIBUTIONS

The following are detail the progress that the linguistic studies have seen, and their contributions to teaching language.

Pragmatics

This science studies “speech acts” and claims that linguistic signs acquire meaning only when they are used in a particular situation of communication and with a specific purpose.

“…all speech acts need to have a purpose and if the speakers formulate their statements efficiently (because they know the language and because they take into account all the factors of the context in which they speak), chances are grater that they will be understood correctly by the listeners.”

 

Socio-linguistics

This science supports and complements pragmatics. “It focuses on the fact that speech acts are determined by the real conditions of a given social situation in which the speech act is performed. The social relationship between two speakers defines the linguistic variety that needs to be used in each situation.” It is not the same if the speakers “belong to the same social group, or to different groups, if they speak the same language or come from different geographical regions, if they have different social roles – one is the parent and the other is the child, or one is old and the other is young, etc.”

The study is concerned with the way society uses language, as this usage is determined by different factors of contextual, geographical and social nature.

This proves that there is no such thing as a “unique language”, because every speaker, inside their community, can tell that not all people talk in the same way, and each person talks differently depending on the situation.

In order to summarize the information detailed above, we present a table extracted from a text by Fernando Carlos Avendaño.

Varieties Characteristics Types Observations
Functional

 

Contextual

Depending on the situations in which language is used * Codes:

Distinction made especially at lexical level

* Registers:

Differentiated through the selective realizations made at phonological and morphological level

Technical, scientific, formal language

Informal and formal tones, levels and styles of language

Geographical Depending on the geographical distribution of the speakers

 

* Regional languages

* Dialects

* Regional speech

* Idiolects

Pronunciation, rhythm, vocabulary, grammar

Speaker personalization

Social Depending on the social status of the speakers * Informal language

* Slang

Fine, cryptic meaning

 

The conclusion is that people do not only need to be able to speak (that is, to be familiar with an abstract system of phonetic symbols), but they have to be skilled speakers – they need to use the language in an appropriate way.

Finally, it is important to signal a few characteristics that skilled speakers must have: competence, appropriateness, efficacy and clarity of the message.

Linguistic and communicative ability means that the speaker must know the linguistic rules that allow him to produce sentences that are correct from a grammatical point of view, and he must also know how social rules work, in order to convey his message adequately in various situations of communication.

The term “appropriateness” is related to linguistic variety and the ability of the speaker to choose the adequate registry depending on the situation.

Efficacy is attained when the speaker achieves through his message what he had proposed to. Finally, what is produced between two speakers is called a message (whether it is a short dialogue, a letter or a story), also known by the classical term of “utterance”.

What is Socio-linguistics?

This science supports and complements pragmatics. “It focuses on the fact that speech acts are determined by the real conditions of a given social situation in which the speech act is performed. The social relationship between two speakers defines the linguistic variety that needs to be used in each situation.” It is not the same if the speakers “belong to the same social group, or to different groups, if they speak the same language or come from different geographical regions, if they have different social roles – one is the parent and the other is the child, or one is old and the other is young, etc.”

The study is concerned with the way society uses language, as this usage is determined by different factors of contextual, geographical and social nature.

This proves that there is no such thing as a “unique language”, because every speaker, inside their community, can tell that not all people talk in the same way, and each person talks differently depending on the situation.

In order to summarize the information detailed above, we present a table extracted from a text by Fernando Carlos Avendaño.

Varieties Characteristics Types Observations
Functional

 

Contextual

Depending on the situations in which language is used * Codes:

Distinction made especially at lexical level

* Registers:

Differentiated through the selective realizations made at phonological and morphological level

Technical, scientific, formal language

Informal and formal tones, levels and styles of language

Geographical Depending on the geographical distribution of the speakers

 

* Regional languages

* Dialects

* Regional speech

* Idiolects

Pronunciation, rhythm, vocabulary, grammar

Speaker personalization

Social Depending on the social status of the speakers * Informal language

* Slang

Fine, cryptic meaning

 

The conclusion is that people do not only need to be able to speak (that is, to be familiar with an abstract system of phonetic symbols), but they have to be skilled speakers – they need to use the language in an appropriate way.

Finally, it is important to signal a few characteristics that skilled speakers must have: competence, appropriateness, efficacy and clarity of the message.

Linguistic and communicative ability means that the speaker must know the linguistic rules that allow him to produce sentences that are correct from a grammatical point of view, and he must also know how social rules work, in order to convey his message adequately in various situations of communication.

The term “appropriateness” is related to linguistic variety and the ability of the speaker to choose the adequate registry depending on the situation.

Efficacy is attained when the speaker achieves through his message what he had proposed to. Finally, what is produced between two speakers is called a message (whether it is a short dialogue, a letter or a story), also known by the classical term of “utterance”.